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Men's Health

Peyronie's Disease – Definition, Prevalence, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Treatments, and More

Fact Checked

Peyronie’s disease, or PD for short, is a chronic disease named after the French surgeon François Gigot de la Peyronie.

Last Updated: 11/15/2021

Written by

James Lang

Medically Reviewed by

Dr. Paul Thompson

Peyronie’s disease, or PD for short, is a chronic disease named after the French surgeon François Gigot de la Peyronie.

The primary symptom of PD is the abnormal curvature that affects the penis, which leads to painful erections and areas of scarring. Moreover, developing PD might also result in erectile dysfunction (ED).

In this comprehensive guide, you will learn everything you need to know about Peyronie’s disease, including its underlying mechanism, causes, risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and more.

Penis Function – How does it normally work?

The penis has a spongy tissue that is able to expand when blood rushes through the arteries. To prevent the blood from flowing back to the general circulation, the veins will get blocked.

As you can see, the pressure inside the penile blood vessels is superior to systemic blood pressure. As a result, blood cannot flow to the penis.

To mediate this fascinating physiology, the parasympathetic nervous system (i.e., Rest and Digest system) releases a molecule called nitric oxide (NO). The primary function of NO is to induce the relaxation of the smooth muscles around the vessels, allowing for blood to flow into the penis. (1)

The Epidemiology of Peyronie’s Disease

According to reports, the prevalence of PD ranges between 0.39% and 3%. However, experts believe that this number is a substantial underestimation since most men feel embarrassed when it comes to penis issues. (2)

Additionally, some cases of PD are mild, which further contributes to the underreporting of this condition.

Another important thing to keep in mind is the most susceptible age group to develop Peyronie’s disease. While statistics indicate that PD mainly occurs in men aged 40–70 years old, some studies reported cases in much younger people.

In one study, authors reported a prevalence of 3.2% after a large survey that focused on self-examination to identify a palpable plaque in the penis. In plain English, men inspected their penises to see if there is any plaque. (3)

The survey included 8,000 participants and found the following prevalence:

  • 1.5% in men aged 30-39 years

  • 3% in men aged 40-49 years

  • 3% in men aged 50-59 years

  • 4% in men aged 60-69 years

  •  6.5% in men aged 70 or older

Aside from the solid structure on the penis, 84% of participants reported the angulation of their penis, whereas 47% stated that their erections are painful. (3)

Finally, 32% of participants reported the triad of painful erections, penile angulation, and plaque formation. (3)

The Signs and Symptoms of Peyronie’s Disease

The progression of Peyronie’s disease develops over many years.

The main symptom is the formation of a plaque, which is a flat scar tissue that can be felt when touching the penis. You will generally find the plaque on the top of the penis; however, it can occur on the bottom or lateral side.

In some cases, the plaque may go all around the penis, leading to the typical bottleneck deformity. Note that when the plaque gets calcified, the penis tissue becomes very hard, resembling bony tissue.

While the idea of having a very hard penile tissue may sound appealing to some people, Peyronie’s disease is no joke!

Whenever scar tissue develops on a certain area of the penis, elasticity goes out the window. Additionally, the plaque on top of the penis may lead to an upward bend when erected. Similarly, a lateral plaque causes the penis to curve to the side.

In advanced cases where there are several plaques, the curvature of the penis is often quite complex.

Interestingly, early studies of Peyronie’s disease stated that the condition is self-limiting, with spontaneous recovery in most cases. However, and as you may know by now, this statement is false.

In fact, one study conducted by Gelbard et al concluded that the plaque responsible for PD resolved without any therapy in only 13% of patients. Furthermore, 40% of patients reported the progression of their condition with time, whereas 47% said they did not notice any changes. (4)

Due to available evidence, most experts recommend early intervention to reverse PD, especially when the condition starts to negatively impact the patient’s sexual life. Evidently, the earlier the date of intervention, the more effective the treatment will be.

To recap the signs and symptoms of Peyronie’s disease, here is what to expect:

  • Pain around the penis that’s most notable during erections

  • The angulation of the penis, which is more apparent during an erection

  • A palpable structure (i.e., plaque) on the surface of the penis

  • Impaired erectile function due to the loss of rigidity or penile buckling

Of course, every patient may experience different signs and symptoms. Additionally, the severity of symptoms depends on the stage of the disease.

To facilitate the management plan of patients, experts divided the cases of PD into acute and chronic phases.

The acute phase typically lasts between 18–24 months. It is characterized by an inflammatory process that affects the penis, leading to pain, scar formation, and penile curvature.

The chronic phase of PD presents with a stable plaque that has some calcium deposition. Erectile dysfunction is not uncommon with this form of the disease.

The Causes of Peyronie’s Disease

The exact causes of PD are still unclear. However, some research suggests a connection between PD and:

  • Vitamin E deficiency

  • Taking beta-blockers

  • High levels of serotonin

Each of these conditions may increase the risk of PD individually. Moreover, PD is linked to Dupuytren contractures and HLA-B7, suggesting a genetic involvement. (5)

Scientists believe that PD results from vascular trauma or direct injury to the penis. Interestingly, the injury can be trivial, but the tiny blood vessels undergo microscopic tearing. As a result, the scarring cascade begins, leading to the formation of the Peyronie plaque.

In one study, researchers attempted to understand the role of chronic illnesses in the incidence of PD. The analyzed conditions were diabetes, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, and high blood pressure. The results showed that these conditions are not related to PD. Additionally, the number of diseases that the patient has does not increase the degree of penile curvature. (6)

While the authors of the study noted a significantly higher incidence of chronic illnesses in these patients, they stated that the present comorbidities were linked to erectile dysfunction rather than PD.

When it comes to risk factors, a comprehensive analysis concluded that the following elements increase the possibility of developing PD (7):

  • Age (advanced age)

  • Obesity

  • Smoking (duration and number of cigarettes per day)

  • Long duration of erectile dysfunction

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • Dyslipidemia (e.g., high LDL, low HDL, high triglycerides)

  • Psychological disorders (e.g., body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety)

As for heart disease and high blood pressure, the study found no connection. Note that the degree of contribution of these risk factors to ED and PD is still unclear.

Another study that included 82 men with PD identified the following risk factors (8):

  • Genetic predisposition

  • A family history of Dupuytren contracture – a condition that causes hand deformity

  • Systemic vascular disease (e.g., diabetes, blood hypertension, high triglycerides)

  • Microscopic vascular injury (e.g., cystoscopy, transurethral resection of the prostate)

  • Smoking

  • Excessive alcohol consumption

  • Taking beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol)

  • Infection of the urethra

As you can see, research states conflicting results when it comes to the exact causes and risk factors of PD.

In summary, PD seems to result from genetic factors coupled with environmental exposure to trauma, disease, and an unhealthy lifestyle.

How to diagnose Peyronie’s disease

The diagnosis of Peyronie’s disease requires the collection of relevant information from various testing methods.

Your doctor may order the following tests:

Laboratory tests

There are no specific blood tests to diagnose PD.

Although there is a connection between PD and HLA-B7 (a specific protein that appears on the surface of cells), the marker is not specific enough to order the test.

Furthermore, the diagnosis of PD mainly focuses on the history of the patient and physical exam findings. Therefore, this marker has no clinical value.

Radiological tests

If your doctor orders an imaging test, he/she is mainly looking for the presence of calcium in the plaque. When calcification occurs, it often reflects the halt of disease progression, which means the curvature of the penis will no longer worsen.

Here are the imaging studies that may be helpful:

  • A plain radiograph – this test is similar to chest X-rays. Only in this scenario, the machine is pointed towards the penis.

  • Penile ultrasonography – ultrasonography uses sound waves to observe the anatomy of the penis.

  • Corpus cavernosography – this study is uncommonly ordered since the findings do not impact the treatment modalities.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – MRI is helpful in identifying the composition of the plaque, even when it only contains fibrous tissues. Some experts question the effectiveness of this imaging technique due to its high cost and poor availability.

Diagnostic procedures

If you have erectile dysfunction along with PD, your doctor may order duplex ultrasonography with intracavernous injections, which is a complex test that identifies abnormal arterial structures and vein occlusions.

This procedure is now more popular due to its ability to:

  • Pinpoint the dimensions and extent of Peyronie plaque

  • Assess hour-glass deformity of the penis

  • Objectify the degree of penile angulation

Note that during the procedure, your doctor may ask you to observe and confirm the degree of penile curvature to get a more comprehensive review.

In one study, researchers attempted to evaluate the compliance between patients’ estimation of penile curvature and the findings of diagnostic procedures. The study recruited 81 men with PD who were asked to provide their best estimate on the degree of penile angulation they experience. (9)

Surprisingly, the study found that 54% of men overestimate their penile angulation, whereas only 26% underestimate it. The remaining 20% had estimates that matched objective assessment.

As you can see, the results of this study indicate that more than half the patients with PD tend to overestimate their penile angulation, which negatively impacts their self-confidence and self-esteem.

In conclusion, the authors emphasized the cruciality of objective assessment of the penis’ curvature.

As for penis length, researchers believe that the measure of this parameter is also important. Therefore, you can expect your surgeon to measure the length of the penis while flaccid, as well as after achieving an erection.

The data collected from these measurements will help in the decision-making of treatment options. Your surgeon will be able to get a realistic expectation of what to achieve with surgical intervention.

You can ask your doctor about the degree of penile curvature that you actually have, as well as the expected results after the intervention. Moreover, make sure to inquire about the potential loss of penile length during the procedure.

Note that the type of treatment that you will receive varies if you also have ED. Speak with your doctor for more information about this point.

The treatment of Peyronie’s disease

The treatment of Peyronie’s disease focuses on improving the symptoms of pain, erectile dysfunction, and penile curvature.

The following sections will detail the different treatment approaches that your doctor may suggest.

Pharmacological drugs

Generally, pharmacological drugs are the first-line therapy for PD. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of these drugs. Additionally, some research suggests better results when some of these drugs are given together. (10)

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant, which may explain its relative effectiveness in the management of PD. Yet since the initial reports, subsequent studies did not confirm the positive results.

In one conference held by the US National Institutes of Health, a report demonstrated that 105 patients with PD experienced significant symptom improvement after the administration of vitamin E. They also reported a 13% reduction in penile angulation. However, further investigation using objective methods showed that penile curvature did not change in 70% of these patients. (11)

Potassium aminobenzoate (PABA)

This is another oral agent that showed conflicting evidence in treating PD. If you are not familiar with this compound, just know that it is part of the vitamin B family.

The main action of this agent is to prevent fibrosis (i.e., scar formation) by improving oxygen uptake in the tissues. As a result, the activity of an enzyme known as oxygen-dependent monoamine oxidase increases, preventing tissue fibrosis.

According to one study, the use of PABA in 21 men led to: (12)

  • Pain reduction

  • Reduction in penile curvature (82%)

  • Regression of the plaque (76%)

Most doctors consider PABA to be the first-line agent in treating PD. However, due to the large amount required every day, the relatively long duration of treatment (6 months), and the gastrointestinal side effects, many patients stop taking this drug after a while.

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen has the ability to dampen the inflammatory response by decreasing the activity of fibroblasts (i.e., the cells responsible for the formation of scars).

In one study, giving patients 20 mg of tamoxifen for 3 months improved penile pain and curvature. Additionally, around 1/3 of patients reported a reduction in the size of their Peyronie plaque. (13)

Unfortunately, a more recent prospective study found no evidence of symptom improvement despite taking tamoxifen. (14)

Colchicine

Colchicine is an old anti-inflammatory agent that boosts the activity of collagenase, which is responsible for breaking down collagen molecules. (15)

In one study, 24 men received colchicine for 3–5 months. After analyzing the results, researchers found a slight decrease in penile angulation (11%) and a marked decrease in 26% of patients. Additionally, around 50% of cases had a decrease in the size of the Peyronie plaque. (16)

The authors of the study noted that most patients complained of colchicine’s side effects, especially on the gastrointestinal tract.

When researchers tried to compare the action of colchicine and vitamin E, they recruited men in the early stages of PD who developed symptoms within 6 months of the clinical trial. All participants had a form of ED and penile curvature that did not surpass 30%. No calcifications were present during the study. (17)

After selecting participants, researchers divided them into 3 groups:

  • The first group received vitamin E

  • The second group received colchicine

  •  The third group received ibuprofen (i.e., the control group)

As expected, the plaque size did not change in patients with ibuprofen. In contrast, the other groups experienced a significant reduction in plaque size. Similarly, patients reported a substantial reduction in penile angulation compared to the control group.

The primary adverse effect reported by patients who took colchicine was temporary diarrhea.

Unfortunately, the limited number of participants negatively impacts the quality of this study. Nevertheless, it is still a great piece of evidence that combining the two drugs can provide a synergetic effect to promptly treat PD.

Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum

Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is one of the injectable drugs that can hydrolyze collagen. As a result, collagen deposits will get broken down. Some evidence suggests that this property may be able to break down the accumulation of collagen that causes penile angulation.

Your doctor may recommend CCH if you have a palpable plaque and penile angulation of at least 30 degrees.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of this drug to treat Peyronie’s disease. The approval was due to clinical trials that included 832 men with PD and penile angulation of at least 30 degrees.

In a study of 69 men, the injection of CCH found a 88% subjective improvement after 4 series of treatment. Objective assessment of these studies reported a 23-degree curvature improvement. (17)

Another study showed that the effectiveness of CCH injections is more pronounced when the patient does not have any calcification at the time of treatment. Additionally, the results are better when penile angulation is higher than 60%. (18)

Verapamil

Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker (CCB) that gained some traction in PD therapy. The primary mechanism of action of this medication includes the optimization of collagenase activity. The results of several studies that inspected the effects of verapamil on pain and penile curvature showed favorable results.

One study reported a 93% decrease in pain after injecting 10 mg of verapamil. Furthermore, patients reported a 100% subjective improvement in hourglass deformity. The objective assessment demonstrated a 42% improvement in penile angulation and a 58% improvement in ED. (19)

The injection site was exactly in the site of the lesion.

Intralesional hyaluronic acid (HA)

Intralesional hyaluronic acid (HA) injections are also part of PD therapy. In a double-blind randomized study, scientists compared the action of HA with verapamil injection in 132 men with PD. Surprisingly, HA injections showed better results compared to verapamil injections. (20)

Additionally, patients who received HA injections reported improved symptoms of pain and penile curvature.

Surgical treatment

Before choosing the type of surgery you might need, your physician will evaluate the presence of ED first. Additionally, the physical features of the plaque will play a role in deciding which intervention is best.

Here are the most common surgical procedures to treat Peyronie’s disease:

Plication

Plication is the least-invasive intervention for PD. During this procedure, your surgeon will use stitches on the opposite side of scarring.

The main goal is to shorten the penis on the far side of the curve, which allows for its straight pulling. In simple words, the penis will get shortened on both sides – one side by scarring and the other one by plication.

Most experts recommend plication for cases of PD that have at least a 60-degree penile angulation. (21)

Due to the minimal invasiveness of this procedure, the risk of serious side effects, such as impotence and irreversible damage, is quite low. However, you can expect the penis to shorten with the procedure.

Your surgeon may suggest performing this procedure in an outpatient setting. While most cases only require local sedation, some patients need general anesthesia.

During the postoperative period, you can recover at home. Your team of healthcare professionals will teach you how to change dressings before leaving the facility.

The good news is that you can go back to your regular lifestyle after 1–2 days of the intervention.

Despite the clear advantages of plication, it still has some limitations, including its inability to treat hourglass deformities and indentations.

Moreover, you may experience the following side effects:

  • Decreased sensation in the penis

  • Persistent pain after surgery

  •  Bumps or lumps in the penis

  • Less-rigid erections

  •  Indentations in the penis will remain

  • The penis can become curved again

Excision and Grafting

This procedure mainly helps patients with penile angulation that surpass 60–70 degrees. (22)

Your surgeon will remove the scarred tissue and replace it with a tissue graft. The type of graft tissue used will depend on several factors, including the area and the surgeon performing the procedure. Unlike plication, this intervention is quite invasive. It also takes longer to perform. Excision and grafting reverse penile angulation and restores the length of the penis.

The recovery after this procedure is generally longer than that of plication. As a result, patients may take longer before being able to resume their work or engage in sexual intercourse.

Stretching and massaging the penis after the surgery may be important to restore its shape and length. In some cases, the use of a penile traction device is beneficial.

Obviously, the risk of impotence and nerve damage is higher with this procedure.

Make sure to speak with your surgeon about the potential adverse effects and complications of this procedure.

Penile Implant

The above-mentioned surgical procedures are optimal for people who can get an erection.

However, if you have Peyronie’s disease and you are unable to get an erection, a penile implant may be necessary. These implants are inflatable cylinders that the surgeon places inside the penis, which can be controlled by a pump in the scrotum.

During the procedure, the surgeon will make a small incision in your lower abdomen or just below the head of the penis. After that, the implants get inserted and the incision gets stitched.

Note that penile implants may be the last resort for patients with severe cases of Peyronie’s disease.

Complications of Peyronie’s disease

The primary complications of Peyronie’s disease include: (23)

  • The inability to have sexual intercourse due to penile angulation

  • Emotional distress and mental disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) triggered by poor sexual performance and the appearance of the penis

  • Conception problems due to poor sexual intercourse

  • Stress and negative feelings between partners

When should I see a doctor about Peyronie’s disease?

The management of Peyronie’s disease requires the expertise of a urologist.

These healthcare professionals specialize in the urinary systems of both males and females, as well as the reproductive system of males.

You may want to consult with your primary care physician, who will assess your situation and refer you to a urologist.

However, and before jumping over any steps, it is time to discuss the signs and symptoms of PD.

The following sections will cover the warning signs that it is time for medical consultation:

Penile curvature

If you experience a significant bend of your penis while erect, it may be a sign that you have PD.

However, the anatomy of the penis comes in different forms and shapes. Differently put, some men have naturally curved penises, making this sign non-specific.

With that said, if you notice that the bend of your penis exceeds 45 degrees or that you have some sort of widening or narrowing, it is time to see your doctor.

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is not a cause of PD.

Albeit, the two conditions tend to occur together. If you notice that you are unable to achieve an erection or maintain it, you should visit your doctor.

During the physical examination, your doctor will inspect the curvature of your penis to identify any structural abnormalities.

Coupled with other information from your medical history and physical exam, ED may be a gateway to diagnose PD.

Shortening of the penis

If you notice that your penis is shrinking in size while erect after undergoing a traumatic injury, it may be an early sign that you are developing PD.

Of course, if you undergo a physical injury to the penis, you should get it checked out by a doctor regardless of whether it is shrinking or not.

Scar tissue

The formation of Peyronie plaque starts with the deposition of scar tissue. After the scar tissue expands and collagen deposits in large amounts, the plaque becomes large enough to bend the penis.

If you notice any rigid area on the surface of the penis, it is time to visit a doctor.

Pain

Pain is a common symptom reported by patients with Peyronie’s disease patients. However, this symptom is highly unspecific due to the number of conditions that could trigger it.

If you experience any of the symptoms listed above, or if you are simply worried about having Peyronie’s disease, it is best to visit a urologist.

According to studies, the earlier the intervention to treat Peyronie’s disease, the better the outcome of patients. Unfortunately, many men are too embarrassed with anything related to their reproductive system, which eventually worsens their prognosis.

How to live a fulfilling life with Peyronie’s disease

1. Do not think you are alone

Similar to other disorders that affect the person’s sexual life, Peyronie’s disease is rarely discussed due to its “taboo” nature.

As a result, dealing with PD can feel very stressful and lonely. You might even start feeling that there is something wrong with you.

In reality, PD is more prevalent than most people think. Just check the epidemiology section of this article.

Therefore, you need to understand that you are not alone. Many men all over the world deal with the same struggles and this is okay. Don’t be afraid to share how you feel with your close friends or family.

2. Try to connect with a community

There are several communities dedicated to patients with Peyronie’s disease.

The ones worth checking out include:

Of course, joining these groups does not necessarily translate to stress relief. If you notice that the discussions are making you feel worse, it may be time to look for another group.

3. Seek mental health support

According to a 2016 paper, 50% of patients with PD also have symptoms of depression. Additionally, 80% report experiencing distress from this condition. (24)

Seeking the help of a mental health professional can significantly help you cope with PD. Addressing your emotional issues is also important to live a more fulfilling life.

Your therapist will help you with the stress, anxiety, and depression that often accompany PD. Note that these conditions can severely impact your quality of life, more so than Peyronie’s disease.

4. Explore other forms of intimacy with your partner

While Peyronie’s disease can interfere with your intimacy, the bigger role goes to associated conditions, such as erectile dysfunction.

However, you should keep in mind that intimacy does not strictly mean sexual intercourse. For this reason, you should try to explore other forms of intimacy that you and your partner enjoy.

If you need extra help with this and fresh ideas, you can work with a sex therapist. The therapist will provide the necessary resources to figure out what works for you and your partner.

5. Talk with your partner

Having honest conversations with your partner about your condition and how it affects your sexual life is crucial for a happier life.

If sexual intercourse triggers feelings of pain and discomfort, try to speak with your partner and explain the situation. As a result, they will be more understanding, helping you with emotional support and preserving your intimacy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the prevalence of Peyronie disease (PD)?

While the rate of PD ranges between 0.38–3%, many experts believe this is to be an underestimation because of psychological factors.

Another important thing to keep in mind is the most susceptible age group to develop Peyronie’s disease. While statistics indicate that PD mainly occurs in men aged 40–70 years old, some studies reported cases in much younger people.

2. What are the signs and symptoms of Peyronie disease (PD)?

The signs and symptoms of Peyronie’s disease vary between individuals, depending on the size and extent of the plaque.

However, you can expect the following clinical presentations:

  • Pain around the penis that’s most notable during erections

  • The angulation of the penis, which is more apparent during an erection

  • A palpable structure (i.e., plaque) on the surface of the penis

  • Impaired erectile function due to the loss of rigidity or penile buckling

3. When is surgery indicated in the treatment of Peyronie disease (PD)?

If you receive the diagnosis of Peyronie’s disease within 6 months of symptom onset, your doctor may attempt non-surgical procedures. Regardless of whether therapy is effective or not, you may need to continue the treatment for at least 6 months before turning to invasive procedures.

Additionally, you might have to wait for some time before receiving surgical treatment to ensure that the condition is stable. Some patients experience spontaneous resolution, which is why rushing to surgery might not be the best course of action.

The exact duration varies between patients, depending on the severity of your symptoms. As a general rule of thumb, it ranges between 1 to 2 years. During this period, your doctor will try different medical and noninvasive measures to treat your condition.

If calcium deposits on the Peyronie’s plaque at any point of the non-surgical period, it indicates that the disease reached an endpoint and that no further angulation or deformation will occur. This evidence is enough to contemplate surgical procedures.

Additionally, if your penile angulation remains unchanged for at least 6 months, speak with your urologist about the potential benefits of surgery.

One key factor to determine whether surgery is necessary is the debilitating nature of your symptoms, preventing satisfactory sexual function. If you also have erectile dysfunction with Peyronie’s disease, surgical procedures that address both conditions might be more appropriate.

Note that researchers and physicians do not think that operating the penis because of esthetic motives is reasonable. In fact, even after opting for a surgical solution, you will most likely have some degree of curvature.

4. What is the prognosis for Peyronie disease (PD)?

Generally speaking, the outcome of patients with PD can be assessed by evaluating the degree of improvement in the curvature of the penis and Peyronie plaque, as well as the return of proper sexual function.

Researchers found that patients who identify their goals before the initiation of treatment are the most satisfied with the final results. This might be due to having realistic expectations.

5. What is the role of stem cell therapy in the treatment of Peyronie disease (PD)?

According to preliminary research, stem cell therapy may be quite effective in restoring damaged tissue. The studied sample was taken from a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a blend of stem cells derived from fat cells, endothelial precursor cells, and immune-modulatory cells. (25)

The combined effect of these components might prove effective in inducing the formation of new blood vessels and aiding in their differentiation.

However, there is still a need for a lot of research and clinical trials before mainstreaming the use of stem cell therapy in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease.

Takeaway message

Peyronie’s disease is a relatively common condition that negatively impacts your ability to have sexual intercourse due to penile curvature. The complex causes and pathophysiology of this disease render the treatment quite challenging. 

However, you can live a happy life by following the tips cited above.

Hopefully, this comprehensive guide helped you understand everything you need to know about Peyronie’s disease and how it connects to other illnesses.

Tailored medical advice is still necessary to provide you with the best care possible that specifically meets your needs.